Course Outline (W2020)

BME639: Control Systems and Bio-Robotics

Instructor(s)Saba Sedghizadeh [Coordinator]
Office: ENG457
Phone: TBA
Email: ssedghiz@ryerson.ca
Office Hours: Tuesdays(11:30 - 13:00), Wednesdays(11:30 - 13:00)
Calendar DescriptionIntroductory course for Biomedical Engineers: system modeling, simulation, analysis and classical-controller designs of linear, time-invariant, continuous time systems. System dynamic properties in time and frequency domains, performance specifications and basic properties of feedback are investigated. Stability analysis is reinforced through Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Root-Locus method, Bode plots, and Nyquist criteria. Concept of Bio-Robotics is introduced, and exposure to basics of state-space representation and feedback. Key control concepts are experienced through laboratory experiments using modular servo-system with open architecture, fully integrated with MATLab and Simulink; use of simulation tools; and solving design problems.
PrerequisitesBME 532, CEN 199
AntirequisitesELE 639


Compulsory Text(s):
  1. Automatic Control Systems, 10th Edition, Benjamin C. Kuo and Farid Golnaraghi, 2017, McGraw Hill Education
Reference Text(s):
  1. Control Systems Engineering, Norman S. Nise, 7th edition, 2016, Wiley Inc.
  2. Modern Control Systems, Katsuhiko Ogata, 5th Edition, 2011, Prentice Hall
  3. Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 7th Edition, Gene F. Franklin, J. Da Powell, Abbas Emami-Naeini, 2014, Pearson
Learning Objectives (Indicators)  

At the end of this course, the successful student will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate competency in modeling and analysis of a SISO, continuous, LTI control system in a single feedback loop configuration, including specific tasks of defining a system analytical description, its stability and its dynamic response. (2b)
  2. Determine transfer function model of the DC servo motor by applying two methods. First, the theoretical method, by applying the mathematical and scientific principles. Second, the experimental method, by using the real-time experimental data. Then compare the results of the theory and the experiment and explain the behaviour of the process. This includes obtaining and verifying experimental data, assessing the accuracy of the results and explaining sources of possible discrepancies. (3a)
  3. Implement a PI controller on the obtained model by simulation and on the real-time actual DC servo motor. Compare the control system results. Determine the existing constraints in the real-time control and explain their effects on the control systems. (3b)
  4. Identify and then carry out steps required in designing a single loop controller (PID, Lead, Lag and State-feedback) for a low order LTI system to meet a set of specifications and then evaluate the controller design by verifying its performance against a set of criteria. (4a)
  5. Identify and then carry out steps required in designing a simple in-the- loop controller (PID, Lead, Lag and State-feedback) for a low order LTI system to meet a set of specifications and then evaluate the controller design by verifying its performance against a set of criteria. (4b)
  6. Demonstrate proficiency in the use of high-performance engineering modeling and analysis software (Matlab and Simulink) for control system analysis and design in this course, and for subsequent engineering practice. (5a)
  7. Work effectively as a member of a team in the laboratory, manage the time to complete the lab projects appropriately in the given time schedule and submit the lab report according to the submission due date. Produce a lab summary individually and submit it with along the lab report to explain the teamwork has been done to achieve the goals of the lab project. (6a)
  8. Produce a technical report using appropriate format, grammar, and citation styles, with figures and tables are carefully chosen to illustrate points made, with appropriate size, labels, and references in the body of the report, and respond appropriately to verbal questions from instructors - lab interviews. (7a), (7b), (7c)
  9. Involve and play an active role in the lab projects, take a responsibility to complete the part of the lab project that has been assigned to do and produce a technical lab report for the assignment. (8b)

NOTE:Numbers in parentheses refer to the graduate attributes required by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB).

Course Organization

3.0 hours of lecture per week for 13 weeks
1.5 hours of lab/tutorial per week for 12 weeks

Teaching AssistantsTBA
Course Evaluation
Quizzes ( 2 x 7% ) 14 %
Labs 1-3 ( 3 x 7% in pairs) 21 %
Midterm Test 20 %
Final Exam 45 %
TOTAL:100 %

Note: In order for a student to pass a course with "Theory and Laboratory" components, in addition to earning a minimum overall course mark of 50%, the student must pass the Laboratory and Theory portions separately by achieving a minimum of 50% in the combined Laboratory components and 50% in the combined Theory components. Please refer to the "Course Evaluation" section for details on the Theory and Laboratory components.

ExaminationsMidterm exam in Week 7, two hours, problem solving, closed book (covers Weeks 1-8).
 Final exam, during exam period, three hours, closed-book (covers Weeks 1-13 with emphasis on Weeks 7-13).
Other Evaluation InformationThere are assignment problems for each chapter posted on the course D2L. The assignment will not be collected. However, students are expected to solve the assignment problems.
Other InformationLab marks are based on attendance, successful completion of pre-lab problems, participation, completion of experiment steps, lab reports and successful reply to your TA questions during submission. Students
 will have the responsibility to achieve a working knowledge of the software packages that will be used in the lab. Students will work in groups of two.

Course Content



Chapters /

Topic, description



Introduction: Information session, General concepts of feedback and control systems, Closed-loop control versus Open-loop control, Differential Equations and Laplace Transform Review.
 Chapter 1 Chapter 3



System Modeling and Representation: Modeling of Electrical Networks, Transfer function representation, Block diagram rules and simplifications, Signal flow graphs Mason's Gain Formula
 Chapter 2.2 Chapter 4.1-4.2



Linear System Time Response: Transient response analysis, First-order systems, Second-order systems, Higher-order systems and dominant poles
 Chapter 7.1-7.5 7.8



Quiz1 1 hour.
 Stability Analysis: BIBO stability definition, Characteristic polynomials, Poles and stability conditions of LTI systems, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, Steady-State error analysis of feedback systems.
 Chapter 5 Chapter 7.6



Root Locus Analysis: Closed-loop pole relation to the loop gain, Root locus graphical method of pole representation, Magnitude and angle laws, Root-locus plotting rules
 Chapter 9



Root Locus Design: Static feedback design, Gain selection from root-locus, Dynamic compensation design, Effect of adding pole/zeros to root-locus, Lead/Lag networks Lead/Lag compensator design in time-domain
 Chapter 7.7 Chapter 11.5

Study Week.



Midterm Review and Midterm Test.



Frequency Response Analysis: Frequency response, Frequency-domain representation, Bode Diagram, Relation between magnitude and phase, Cross over frequency Bandwidth
 Chapter 10.1-10.2



Frequency Response Analysis: Polar Plots Nyquist Diagram Nyquist stability criteria Relative stability, Stability margins, Gain margin and phase margins
 Chapter 10.4-10.11



Quiz2 1 hour.
 Frequency Response Design: Lead/Lag compensator and P PI PD and PID controller design in frequency-domain
 Chapter 11.1-11.5



State-Space Analysis: State-space representation of systems, State diagrams and state variables, State-space equations from high-order differential equations, State transition matrix, Characteristic equation and eigenvalues
 Chapter 8.1-8.11



 State-Space Design: Controllability and Observability of Linear Systems, State feedback control, Tracking objectives, Pole placement method, State feedback with integral control
 Chapter  8.12-8.8.19



Course Review: Review of Controller Design in Frequency Domain: Lead/Lag and PID Examples. Wrap up.

Laboratory/Tutorials/Activity Schedule





Lab 1.1

Lab # 1.1: Introduction to Simulink, Open-Loop Control vs. Closed-Loop Control


Lab 1.2

Lab # 1.2: Transient Response Analysis and Stability of 2nd and 3rd Order Systems


Lab 2.1

Lab # 2.1: Transfer Function Modeling of Physical Systems and Control (DC Motor)


Lab 2.2

Lab # 2.2: Introduction to Lead and Lag Compensators


Lab 3.1

Lab # 3.1: Introduction to PI PD and PID Controllers


Lab 3.2

Lab # 3.2: State Space Modeling of Physical Systems and Control (Rotary Inverted Pendulum)

Policies & Important Information:

  1. Students are required to obtain and maintain a Ryerson e-mail account for timely communications between the instructor and the students;
  2. Any changes in the course outline, test dates, marking or evaluation will be discussed in class prior to being implemented;
  3. Assignments, projects, reports and other deadline-bound course assessment components handed in past the due date will receive a mark of ZERO, unless otherwise stated. Marking information will be made available at the time when such course assessment components are announced.
  4. Refer to our Departmental FAQ page for information on common questions and issues at the following link: https://www.ee.ryerson.ca/guides/Student.Academic.FAQ.html.

Missed Classes and/or Evaluations

When possible, students are required to inform their instructors of any situation which arises during the semester which may have an adverse effect upon their academic performance, and must request any consideration and accommodation according to the relevant policies as far in advance as possible. Failure to do so may jeopardize any academic appeals.

  1. Health certificates - If a student misses the deadline for submitting an assignment, or the date of an exam or other evaluation component for health reasons, they should notify their instructor as soon as possible, and submit a Ryerson Student Health Certificate AND an Academic Consideration Request form within 3 working days of the missed date. Both documents are available at https://www.ryerson.ca/senate/forms/medical.pdf.. If you are a full-time or part-time degree student, then you submit your forms to your own program department or school;
  2. Religious, Aboriginal and Spiritual observance - If a student needs accommodation because of religious, Aboriginal or spiritual observance, they must submit a Request for Accommodation of Student Religious, Aboriginal and Spiritual Observance AND an Academic Consideration Request form within the first 2 weeks of the class or, for a final examination, within 2 weeks of the posting of the examination schedule. If the requested absence occurs within the first 2 weeks of classes, or the dates are not known well in advance as they are linked to other conditions, these forms should be submitted with as much lead time as possible in advance of the absence. Both documents are available at www.ryerson.ca/senate/forms/relobservforminstr.pdf. If you are a full-time or part-time degree student, then you submit the forms to your own program department or school;
  3. Academic Accommodation Support - Before the first graded work is due, students registered with the Academic Accommodation Support office (AAS - www.ryerson.ca/studentlearningsupport/academic-accommodation-support) should provide their instructors with an Academic Accommodation letter that describes their academic accommodation plan.

Academic Integrity

Ryerson's Policy 60 (the Academic Integrity policy) applies to all students at the University. Forms of academic misconduct include plagiarism, cheating, supplying false information to the University, and other acts. The most common form of academic misconduct is plagiarism - a serious academic offence, with potentially severe penalties and other consequences. It is expected, therefore, that all examinations and work submitted for evaluation and course credit will be the product of each student's individual effort (or an authorized group of students). Submitting the same work for credit to more than one course, without instructor approval, can also be considered a form of plagiarism.

Suspicions of academic misconduct may be referred to the Academic Integrity Office (AIO). Students who are found to have committed academic misconduct will have a Disciplinary Notation (DN) placed on their academic record (not on their transcript) and will normally be assigned one or more of the following penalties:

  1. A grade reduction for the work, ranging up to an including a zero on the work (minimum penalty for graduate work is a zero on the work);
  2. A grade reduction in the course greater than a zero on the work. (Note that this penalty can only be applied to course components worth 10% or less, and any additional penalty cannot exceed 10% of the final course grade. Students must be given prior notice that such a penalty will be assigned (e.g. in the course outline or on the assignment handout);
  3. An F in the course;
  4. More serious penalties up to and including expulsion from the University.

The unauthorized use of intellectual property of others, including your professor, for distribution, sale, or profit is expressly prohibited, in accordance with Policy 60 (Sections 2.8 and 2.10). Intellectual property includes, but is not limited to:

  1. Slides
  2. Lecture notes
  3. Presentation materials used in and outside of class
  4. Lab manuals
  5. Course packs
  6. Exams

For more detailed information on these issues, please refer to the Academic Integrity policy(https://www.ryerson.ca/senate/policies/pol60.pdf) and to the Academic Integrity Office website (https://www.ryerson.ca/academicintegrity/).

Important Resources Available at Ryerson

  1. The Library (https://library.ryerson.ca/) provides research workshops and individual assistance. Inquire at the Reference Desk on the second floor of the library, or go to library.ryerson.ca/guides/workshops
  2. Student Learning Support(https://www.ryerson.ca/studentlearningsupport) offers group-based and individual help with writing, math, study skills and transition support, and other issues.