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(underlined authors: supervised HQP - High Quality Personnel)

Website for Geometric Water-filling (GWF) and related algorithms with Matlab code and demonstration


Papers Accepted / Published on-line for Early Access

  1. J. Gao, M. S. Li, L. Zhao, and X. Shen,  ¡°Contention intensity based distributed coordination for V2V safety message broadcast", accepted, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2018

  2. J. Gao, L. Zhao, and X. Shen,  ¡°Network utility maximization based on incentive mechanism for truthful reporting of local information", published on-line, early access, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2018, [link].



  1. P. He, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, and X. Shen, ¡°Energy-efficient power allocation with individual and sum power constraints¡±, IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communications, vol. 17, No. 8, pp5353-5366, August, 2018, [link].

  2. S. Fu, L.Zhao, Z. Su, and X. Jian, ¡°UAV based relay for wireless sensor networks in 5G systems¡±, MDPI Sensors, vol. 18, No. 8, 2413, July, 2018.

  3. S. Zhang, P. He, K. Suto, P. Yang, L. Zhao and X. Shen, ¡°Cooperative edge caching in user-centric clustered mobile networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 17, No. 8, pp1791-1805, 2017, [link].

  4. P. He, S. Zhang, L.Zhao, and X. Shen, "Multi-channel power allocation for maximizing energy efficiency in wireless networks", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 67, No. 7, pp5895-5908, 2018, [link].

  5. Q. Z. Li, L. W. Zhao, J. Gao, H.B. Liang, L. Zhao, X. H. Tao, ¡°SMDP-based coordinated virtual machine allocations in cloud-fog computing systems¡±, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 5, No. 3, pp1977-1988, 2018, [link].

  6. P. He, M. Li, L.Zhao, B. Venkatesh, and H. W. Li, ¡°Water-filling exact solutions for load balancing of smart power grid systems¡±, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, No. 2, pp1397-1407, Febuary, 2018 [link].


  1. Q. Li, X. Feng, L. Zhao, and L. Sun,  ¡°A framework for searching Internet-wide devices", IEEE Network, vol. 31, No. 6, pp101-107, 2017, [link].

  2. A. Sultana, L. Zhao, and X. Fernando, ¡°Efficient resource allocation in device-to-device communication using cognitive radio technology¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 66, No. 11, pp10024-10034, November, 2017, [link].

  3. L. Cai, J. P. Pan, L. Zhao, and X. Shen, ¡°Networked electrical vehicles for green intelligent transportation", IEEE Communications Standard Magazine, vol. 1, pp77-83, 2017.

  4. M. S. Li, L. Zhao, H. B. Liang, ¡°An SMDP-based prioritized channel allocation scheme in cognitive enabled vehicular ad hoc networks¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 66, No. 9, pp7925-7933, September, 2017  [pdf], [link].

  5. B. P. Zhou, Q. C. Chen, H. Wymeersch, P. Xiao, and L. Zhao, ¡°Variational Inference-based positioning with nondeterminstric measurement accuracies and reference location errors ¡±, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 16, No. 10, pp2955-2969, 2017, [link].

  6. P. He, L.Zhao, and B. Venkatesh, ¡°Optimal power allocation for hybrid energy harvesting and power grid coexisting system with power upper bounded constraints¡±, IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing Over Networks, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp187-199, March 2017 [pdf].

  7. M. S. Li,  P. He,  L.Zhao,  ¡°Dynamic load balancing applying water-filling approach in smart grid systems¡±, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp247-258, Feb. 2017, [pdf].

  8. P. He, L.Zhao, and B. Venkatesh, ¡°Novel water-filling for maximum throughput of power grid, MIMO and envergy harvesting coexisting system with mixed constraints ¡±, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp827-838, Feb. 2017, [pdf].

  9. B. P. Zhou, Q.C. Chen, P. Xiao, L. Zhao, ¡°On the spatial error propagation charateristics of cooperative localization in wireless networks", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp1647-1658, Feb. 2017 [pdf].


  1. P. He, L.Zhao, ¡°Non-commutative composite water-fillings for energy harvesting and smart power grid hybrid system with peak power constraints¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol 65, no. 4, April, 2016, pp2026-2037  [pdf].

  2. P. He, L.Zhao, ¡°Optimal power allocation for maximum throughput of general MU-MIMO multiple access channels with mixed constraints¡±, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 64, no. 3, pp1042-1054, March, 2016 [pdf].

  3. K. Hafeez, A. Anpalagan, L.Zhao, ¡°Optimizing the control channel interval of the DSRC for vehicular safety applications¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, No. 5, pp3377-3388, May 2016  [pdf].

  4. A. Sultana, X. Fernado, L.Zhao, ¡°An overview of medium access control strategies for opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks", Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, published on-line, May, 2016, doi:10.1007/s12083-016-0465-0  [link].

  5. H. Ren, H. W. Li, X. H. Liang, S. B. He, Y. S. Dai, and L. Zhao, ¡°Privacy-enhanced and multifunctional health data agreegation under differential privacy guarantees¡±, Sensors, Vol. 16, No. 9, Sep., 2016, doi: 10.3390/s16091463.

  6. M. Baljon and L. Zhao, ¡°Resource allocation for wireless networks with energy harvesting constraints over fading channels", Journal Issue on Information and Communication Technolgy, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp9-19, August, 2016.


  1. P. He, L.Zhao, ¡°Solving a class of sum power minimization problems using generalized water-filling¡±, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, No. 12, December, 2015, pp6792-6804 [link].

  2. P. He, L.Zhao, S. Zhou and Z. S. Niu, ¡°Optimal recursive power allocation for energy harvesting nodes with multiple antennas¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 64, No. 10, October, pp4525-4536, 2015 [link].

  3. O. Malek, A. Venetsanopoulos, D. Androutsos, and L.Zhao, ¡°Sequential subspace estimator for biometric authentication¡±, Neurocomputing, vol 148, pp294-309, Jan. 2015 [link].

  4. P. He, M. He,  and L. Zhao, ¡°Optimal power allocation for MIMO-MAC in cognitive radio networks¡±, Electronics, DOI 10.3390/electronics3030538, vol. 3, pp538-552, 2014 [link].

  5. P. Nisbet, M. He, and L. Zhao, ¡°Transformerless impedance matching networks for automotive power line communication¡±, Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research, DOI 10.5897/JEEER2014.0507, 2014  [pdf].

  6. P. He, L.Zhao, S. Zhou and Z. S. Niu, ¡°Recursive water-filling for wireless links with energy harvesting transmitters¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 63, No. 3, March, pp1232-1241, 2014  [pdf] [link].


  1. P. He, L.Zhao, S. Zhou and Z. S. Niu, ¡°Water-filling: a geometric approach and its application to solve generalized radio resource allocation problems¡±, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communicaitions, vol. 12, No. 7, July, pp3637-3647, 2013 [pdf] [link].

  2. K. A. Hafeez, L.Zhao,  J. W. Mark, X. Shen and Z. S. Niu, ¡°Distributed multichannel and mobility aware cluster-based MAC protocol for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETS)¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, No. 8, pp3886-3902, Oct. 2013 [link].

  3. K. A. Hafeez, L.Zhao, B. Ma and J. W. Mark, ¡°Performance Analysis and Enhancement of the DSRC for VANET's Safety Applications¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, No. 7, pp3069-3083, Sep., 2013  [pdf] [link] (2016 Best Land Transportation Paper Award from IEEE Vehicular Technology Society).

  4. P. He, L.Zhao and J. H. Lu,  ¡°Weighted Sum-rate Maximization for Multi-user SIMO Multiple Access Channels in Cognitive Radio Networks¡±, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 15 pages, April, 2013 [link with full paper].

  5. M. Elalem and L.Zhao,  ¡°Effective capacity and interference analysis in multiband dynamic spectrum sensing¡±,  Journal of Communication and Network (CN), Nov. 5, No. 2, pp. 111-118,  May, 2013, [pdf].

  6. M. Elalem and L.Zhao,  ¡°Throughput maximization based on optimal access probabilities in cognitive radio systems¡±,  Journal of Communication and Network, Vol 5, No. 3, pp. 204-210,  2013, Aug. 2013, [pdf].

  7. M. Elalem and L.Zhao,  ¡°Channel estimation and effective capacity over imperfect Rayleigh channel environment in cognitive radio¡±,  Journal of Communication and Computer (JCC), vol. 10, No. 7, pp1007-1018, 2013, [pdf].


  1. L. Huang, Z. Lian and L. Zhao,  ¡°Physical Rules Based Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inferential Sensor Model for Predicting the Indoor Temperature in Heating Systems¡±, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Article ID 517826, 10 pages, 2012, [link with full paper].

  2. L. Huang, Z. Liao, H. Ge, and L. Zhao,¡°Physical rules based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inferential sensor model design and analysis in predicting the indoor temperature in heating system", Advanced Material Research, vol. 516-517, pp370-379, 2012 [link].

  3. P. He and L. Zhao, ¡°Correction of Convergence Proof for Iterative Water-Filling in Gaussian MIMO Broadcast Channels¡±, IEEE Transactions Information Theory, vol. 57, No. 4, pp2539-2543, April, 2011, [link].

  4. K. A. Hafeez, L.Zhao, Z. Liao and B. Ma, ¡°Clustering and OFDM-Based MAC Protocol (COMAC) for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks¡±, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communication and Networking, September, 16 pages, 2011, [link with full paper].

  5. S. Jassar, Z. Liao and L. Zhao, ¡°A Recurrent Neuro-Fuzzy System and its Application in INferential Sensing¡±, Applied Soft Computing, vol. 11, issue 3, pp2935-2945, 2011, [link].

  6. C. L. Huang, Z. Lian and L.Zhao, ¡°Synergism of INS and PDR in self-contained pedestrian tracking with a miniature sensor module¡±, IEEE Sensor Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 8, pp1349-1359, 2010, [link].

  7. S. Jassar, Z. Liao and L. Zhao, ¡°Data Quality in Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Based Soft-Sensor Models: an Experiental Study¡±, IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, vol. 37, issue 1, pp64-75, 2010, [link with full paper]


  1. N.M. Chowdhury, Z. Liao, L. Zhao and C. T. Yang, ¡°Tube Wave Analysis of Buried Pipes¡±, Jour. Canadian Acoustic, vol. 37, No.2, pp25-34, June, 2009, [link with full paper]

  2. S. Jassar, Z. Liao and L. Zhao, ¡°Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Based Inferential Sensor Model for Estimating the Average Air Temperature in Space Heating Systems¡±, Building and Environment, vol. 44, pp1609-1616, 2009, [link].

  3. L. Bai, L.Zhao and Z. Liao, ¡°Energy-balanced Parameter-adaptable Protocol Design in Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks¡±, International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, pp39-57, vol. 4, No. 1, January 2009, [link with full paper].

  4. L. Zhao and Z. Liao,  ¡°Power Allocation for Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Transmission Over Rayleigh-Fading Channels¡±, Journal of Communications, .pp33-42, vol. 3, No. 3, July. 2008, [pdf].

  5. R. Wu, Z. Liao and L. Zhao, ¡°Wavelets Application in Acoustic Emission Signal Detection of Wire Related Events in Pipeline¡±, Canadian Acoustics, pp33-41, vol. 36, No. 2, June, 2008, [link with full paper].

  6. L. Zhao and J. W. Mark, ¡°Joint Rate and Power Adaptation for Radio Resource Management in Uplink Wideband CDMA Systems¡±, IET Proceedings on Communications, pp562-572, vol. 2, No. 4, April, 2008, [link with full paper].

  7. Y.Y. Jia, L.Zhao and B. Ma, ¡°A Hierarchical Clustering-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Supporting Multiple Data Aggregation Qualities", International Journal on Sensor Networks, pp79-91, vol. 4, Nos. 1/2, 2008, [pdf].


  1. L. Zhao and J. Ding, ¡°Least Square Approximation to Lognormal Sum Distributions ¡±, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, pp991-997, March, 2007, [link].

  2. L. Zhao, J. W. Mark and J. Ding, ¡° Power Distribution/Allocation in Multirate Wideband CDMA Systems ¡±, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, pp2458-2467, vol.5, No. 9, September, 2006, [link].

  3. L. Zhao, J. W. Mark and G. Yao, ¡° Mobile Positioning Based on Relaying Capability of Hybrid Wireless Networks¡±, IEE Proceedings on Communications, pp762-770, vol. 153, No. 5, October, 2006, [link].

  4. J. Ding, W.Pye and L. Zhao, ¡°Some Results on Structured M-matrices With An Application to Wireless Communications ¡±, Linear Algebra and Applications, pp608-614, 2006, [link with full paper].

  5. J. Y.Sun, L. Zhao and A. Anpalagan, ¡° Cross-layer Design and Analysis of Downlink Communication in Cellular CDMA Systems¡±, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Special Issue on Radio Resource Management in 3G+ Wireless Systems, Article ID 21297, 23 pages, 2006, [link].

  6. L. Zhao and J. W. Mark, ¡° Mobile Speed Estimation Based on Average Fading Slope Duration ¡±, IEEE Transactions on Communications, pp2066-2069, vol. 52, No. 12, December 2004,  [pdf].

  7. L. Zhao and J. W. Mark, ¡° Multi-step Closed-loop Power Control Using Linear Receivers for DS-CDMA Systems ¡±, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, pp2141-2155, vol. 3, No. 6, November 2004,  [pdf].

  8. L. Zhao, J. W. Mark and Y. C. Yoon, ¡°Performance of Coding-spreading Tradeoff in DS-CDMA Systems Using RCPT and RCPC Codes¡±, IEEE Transactions on Communications, pp882-886, vol. 52, No. 6, June 2004, [pdf].



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